The Colony of Baden
The Colony of Baden was established in 1808, but the process
of building the houses was not completed until 1809. The Colony was
located on the Kutschurgan Liman with a portion of the village being
located on a side valley, which itself ended up at that very Liman. The
Colony of Baden is located 60 verst from Odessa [1 verst = 0.67 mile; 60
verst = ca. 40 miles], the main city [district center] of the region.
The soil is primarily sandy, containing nitric acid. However, with
favorable climate conditions, most grains grow well. There are no stone
quarries in the area.
In 1848 the community lands totaled 3561 dessyatines [1
dessy. = ca. 2.7 acres; 3561 d. = just over 9,600 acres], which was
divided in the following usage: land under cultivation, 1356 dess.;
meadow land, 1020 dess.; grazing land, 1075 dess.; 110 dess. for gardens
and plantations. In 1842 a forest was planted, but by 1848 there were
only 120 trees.
The name of “Baden” was given to this settlement because
many of the settlers came from the Grand Duchy of Baden.
There were 60 Catholic families who originally settled in
Baden. Of these, 40 families were from the Grand Duchy of Baden, 18
families from Elsaß and one family from Austria. The document does not
say where the remaining families came from. In all, there were 237
souls of both genders.
With the exception of 2 families, the 60 families came to
Russia as part of three traveling parties, which were separately led by
Michael Hoffart, Josef Tschau and Friedrich Lehle.
The land provided to the Colonists was assigned by
Rosenkampf and the Liebenthaler Supervisor (word used was
“Oberschulzen,” a kind of grand mayor), Franz Brittner, and was
purchased by the Crown from landowner Sadow or Sador. On the land there
were 6 small semlyankas (earthen huts), all of which were in a poor
state of repair. The financial support to the settlers from the Crown
amounted to 13,899 rubles, 67 kopeks silver. The total capital brought
by the settlers to Russia from Germany was estimated to be 5549 Rubles.
Baden also had misfortune during the early years. In 1812,
there was a plague, but only one person died. Between1824 and 1830
crops were devastated by grasshoppers every year. In 1833 and 1834 the
crop failure was so complete that the colonists had to receive
assistance from the Crown. Yet, the assistance of our dear God did not
remain missing. From the years 1850 to 1870 there were many plentiful
harvests, which helped put the settlers on their feet again and
gradually brought them solid prosperity.
At the present time there are 242 households with 1814 souls
of both genders. There is a parish church, a pastorate, its own Volost
Office, and two schools with four teachers and 213 students.
Currently, Baden owns 3724 3/4 dessy. of community land. 20
individuals own a variety of portions of 1338 dessy. of purchased land.
The community lands are divided as follows: the yards on which houses
are built consists of 115 dess. Livestock business uses 6 dessy.
vegetable gardens consist of 35 dess. and fruit tree gardens utilize 15
dessi. Grape vineyards comprise 9 dess., 3 dess. are meadows, and
there are 3 dess. under water. 2 dess. are acreage covered with nitric
acid, 6 dess. are used for clay pits, 12 dess. are used for a garbage
pit. Roads take up 54 1/4 dess. and 2600 ½ dess. are under
cultivation, plus 861 dess. Being sued as grazing land.. Orphan land
consists of 340 dess. and is rented out for 7 rubles per dess. Grazing
land is rented from an owner in Tiraspol for 3 rubles per head of
livestock. For 70 rubles annually, fishing in the Kutschurgan Liman is
guaranteed. In Baden one can find 21 workshops doing a variety of
work. There is a co-op, 10 second-hand stores, and a pub, for which the
community has to pay 770 rbl. rent.
The community pays the following taxes: 364 rbl., 20 kop. to
the Crown, (Auskaufsumme) 2583 rbl. 20 kop., Basic interest charges
amount to1818 rbl. 9 kop.,and the community owes 3831 rbl. 24 kop.
reprinted from the Odessa Zeitung, Sept 24, 1808 in Der Staats-Anzeiger